CHAPTER 1: Introduction

Food production is one of the most important tasks for our survival as a city. The methods in this guide for growing crops are bio-intensive and organic, as we have no petroleum-based fertilizers or pesticides, and have limited land to work on. All available green spaces need to be converted into farm land, massive composting systems established, and irrigation systems set up. To extend the growing season, greenhouses and sprouting beds will be built, and a variety of energy-efficient food preservation methods implemented.

1:a,i) RATIONING

To calculate food requirements for 1 year, use the chart below for each community, using adult males as the base measurement per individual:

FORMULA:
Number of Individuals (X) Food Factor (=) Equivalent Adult Males

adult males x 1.0
adult females x 0.85
teenage males x 1.4
teenage females x 0.95
male children (7 to 11) x 0.95
female children (7 to 11) x 0.75
young children (4 to 6) x 0.6
infants (1 to 3) x 0.4

To calculate, multiply the number of individuals with the food factor to achieve a figure for an adult male equivalent, then add all equivalent adults in the community for the food requirements per year (see food quantities below). For example, in a community of 10 men, 10 women, 5 boys, 5 girls and 5 young children, the food requirement for 1 year would be equivalent to 30 adult males.

Food quantities for 1 adult male for 1 year:
GRAINS: 325 lbs (variety: oats, corn, rice, barley, etc)
LEGUMES: 80 lbs (dry) (variety: beans, peas, lentils, seeds, etc)
EGGS & DAIRY: 50 lbs (preserved as cheese)
MEAT: 20 lbs (preserved as dried meat, canned, etc)
FRUITS & VEGETABLES: 20 lbs (dry) (dehydrated variety)
SWEETENERS: 60 lbs (honey, syrups, etc)
FATS: 40 lbs (butter, lard, vegetable oils)


1:a,ii) DAILY MINIMUM CALORIC INTAKE

Another way to determine individuals’Caloric needs are determined by a number of factors including present weight, height, age, physical activity, health, body-fat percentage and metabolism. This rough guideline is for active individuals of average height and weight. Elderly or immobile individuals require much fewer calories, and in cases of the sick and injured food intake should be limited and of high nutritional value and easy digestibility.

Adult Males: 2000
Adult Females: 1700
Teenage Males: 2800
Teenage Females: 1900
Male Children: 1900
Female Children: 1500
Young Children: 1200
Infants: 800


1:a,iii) NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FOODS

WHOLE DRY GRAINS (100 g)
Barley: 350cals, high source of protein, fiber, potassium, Vit A, zinc, iron, calcium
Cornmeal: 365cals, high source of Vit A, carbohydrates
Oats: 400cals, high source of fiber, carbohydrates
Rye: 380cals, high source of fiber
Wheat: 340cals, 17g protein, high source of fiber, zinc, potassium, carbohydrates

VEGETABLES (100g)
Beets: 45cals, high source of potassium, folate
Beet greens: 30cals, high source of Vit A, potassium, iron, calcium
Broccoli: 30cals, high source of Vits A & C, calcium, phytonutrients
Brussels sprouts: 40cals, high in fiber, potassium, calcium Vits A & C, phytonutrients
White cabbage: 20cals, source of fiber, phytonutrients
Chinese cabbage: 15cals, high source of calcium, potassium, Vits A & C
Chives: 30cals, high source of Vit A
Carrots: 45cals, high source of potassium, phytonutrients, very high source of Vit A
Cauliflower: 25cals, high source of fiber, potassium, Vit C, phytonutrients
Collards: 25cals, high source of Vit A
Coriander: 20cals, high source of calcium, potassium, very high source of Vit A
Corn: 80cals, high source of fiber, carbohydrates
Pickled cucumber: 20cals, source of Vit A
Eggplant: 30cals, high source of fiber
Fiddleheads: 20cals
Garlic: 130cals, high source of calcium, antioxidants, phytonutrients
Ginger root: 100cals, high source of antioxidants
Kale: 30cals, high source of fiber, calcium, very high source of Vit A, phytonutrients
Lettuce: 20cals, high source of calcium, Vit A
Onion: 35cals
Parsley: 30cals, high source of calcium, potassium, Vit C, very high source of Vit A, folate, antioxidant, phytonutrients
Parsnips: 80cals, high source of Vit C, potassium, carbohydrates
Peas: 85cals, high source of fiber, potassium, Vit A
Green pepper: 25cals, high source of potassium, Vits A & C
Red pepper: 25cals, high source of potassium, Vit C, very high source of Vit A
White potato: 110cals, high source of carbohydrate, fiber, potassium, Vit C
Sweet potato: 100cals, high source of carbohydrate, fiber, potassium, Vit C, extremely high source of Vit A, phytonutrients
Spinach: 20cals, high source of Potassium, Vitamin A, folate, riboflavin, phytonutrients
Summer squashes: 20cals, high source of potassium, fiber
Winter squashes: 40cals, high source of potassium, phytonutrients, very high source of Vit A
Tomato: 20cals, high source of potassium, Vits A & C, phytonutrients
Turnips: 20cals, high source of fiber,
Turnip greens: 20cals, high source of fiber, very high source of calcium, folate, Vits A & C
Zucchini: 15cals, source of fiber, Vit A

FRUITS (100g)
Apples: 60cals, high source of fiber, carbohydrate
Apricots: 50cals, high source of fiber, calcium, potassium, very high source of Vit A
Blackberries: 55cals, high source of fiber, calcium, potassium, Vit C
Blueberries: 55cals, high source of fiber, Vit C, antioxidants, phytonutrients
Cherries: 75cals, high source of fiber, Vit A,
Peaches: 40cals, high source of Vit A
Pears: 60cals, high source of fiber, carbohydrates, potassium
Plums: 55cals, high source of Vit A
Raspberries: 50cals, high source of folate, Vit C, riboflavin
Rhubarb: 20cals, high source of fiber, calcium, potassium, antioxidants
Strawberries: 25cals, very high source of Vit C
Watermelon: 30cals, high in phytonutrients

DAIRY & EGGS (250mL)
Buttermilk: 105cals, high in sodium, potassium, very high in calcium
Human breast milk: 180cals, high in fat, cholesterol, Vits A & C, antibodies
Soymilk: 85cals, high in potassium
Yogurt (whole goat’s or sheep’s milk): 180cals, high in fat, cholesterol, Vit A, very high in calcium
Cottage cheese: 240cals, high source of protein, sodium, potassium
Goat cheese: 260cals, high source of protein, fat, cholesterol, calcium, very high source of Vit A
Medium cheese: 350cals, high source of protein, fat, cholesterol, very high source of calcium, Vit A
Hard cheese: 485cals, high source of protein, fat, sodium, cholesterol, very high source of calcium, Vit A
Sour cream: 370cals, high source of fat, potassium, calcium, cholesterol, very high source of Vit A
Eggs (each): 80cals, source of protein, cholesterol, Vit A

LAKE FISH (100g)
Catfish: 105cals, high source of protein, potassium
Trout: 190cals, source of protein, potassium
Whitefish: 175cals, source of protein, cholesterol, potassium, Vit A, niacin

MEATS (100g)
Lamb: 220cals, high source of protein, cholesterol, iron, zinc, potassium, folate, niacin
Pork: 300cals, high source of fat, protein, cholesterol, niacin
Rabbit: 205cals, high source of protein, potassium, niacin
Organ meats (chicken): 155cals, high source of potassium, cholesterol, very high source of Vit A

POULTRY (100g)
Chicken: 170cals, high source of protein, fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, Vit A, niacin
Duck: 200cals, high source of protein, fat, cholesterol, niacin
Goose: 240cals, high source of protein, fat, cholesterol, potassium
Turkey: 185cals, high source of protein, cholesterol, potassium

LEGUMES (250mL)
Black beans: 240cals, high source of protein, carbohydrate, fiber, very high source of potassium, folate, phytonutrients
Kidney beans: 130cals, high source of carbohydrate, fiber, potassium, phytonutrients
Soy beans: 172cals, high source of protein, calcium, iron, potassium Vit A, phytonutrients
Lentils: 120cals, high source of carbohydrate, fiber, iron, protein, potassium, phytonutrients, very high source of folate, niacin
Chick peas: 120cals, high source of protein, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, potassium, Vit A, folate
Split peas: 120cals, high source of protein, carbohydrate, potassium, folate, niacin

NUTS & SEEDS (100g)
Almonds: 585cals, source of protein, carbohydrate, fat, sodium, potassium, high source of calcium
Pecans: 670cals, source of carbohydrate, fat, Vit A
Pine nuts: 520cals, high source of protein, fiber, fat, iron, potassium, folate, niacin
Walnuts: 640cals, high source of fat, calcium, potassium, Vit A
Flax seeds: 490cals, high source of fiber, calcium, folate, phytonutrients
Pumpkin seeds: 520cals, high source of fiber, fat, calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, very high source of Vit A, folate, niacin
Sesame seeds: 580cals, high source of fat, niacin, very high source of calcium, folate, potassium
Sunflower seeds: 575cals, high source of fat, folate, niacin, fiber

FATS (250mL)
Butter: 1719cals, high source of fat, cholesterol, Vit A
Lard: 1954cals, high source of fat, cholesterol
Canola oil: 2035cals, high source of fat
Corn oil: 2040cals, high source of fat
Sunflower oil: 2035cals, high source of fat

SUGARS & SYRUPS (250mL)
Honey: 1085cals, high source of energy
Corn syrup: 965cals, high source of energy, sodium
Maple syrup: 865cals, high source of energy, potassium


1:a,iv) NATIVE CROPS & LIVESTOCK

As well as detailing the caloric value, the previous section lists the various foods appropriate for production in Toronto. For example, oranges are not included in the list as they can only be grown in warmer climates south of the border so far. However, with the construction of greenhouses, it would be possible to grow tropical and hot-climate fruits such as citrus, bananas, avocadoes and figs, and is certainly worth the attempt if seeds of such plants are found. Warm-climate fruits like the peach and almond tree historically grew best in areas like California and Italy, but because of the large water mass of Lake Ontario, plus the longer, hotter summers here since the beginning of the millennium, it is now suitable to grow and harvest here.

Cows are omitted from the list due to the mass-extermination of all beef and dairy cow breeds in the Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, aka mad cow disease) epidemic in 2009. As well, this cattle production requires more caloric input than is produced for human consumption and as such is not a sustainable food source.

Read the next section, Urban Farming Spaces...

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