Water Pollution & Purification

Water sources become contaminated from decades of acid rain and from industrial and agricultural runoff and sewage contamination during rainy seasons and snow meltoff. Fortunately the past few years have seen a decrease in pollution of all kinds due to the slowing down of industry, decreased use of petroleum-based materials, such as gasoline, motor oils, pesticides, etc., and most recently the complete halting of the domestic sewage system, reducing E. coli contamination in the lake. As well, thanks to the efforts of organizations such as the Lakewide Management Plan for the Great Leakes, plus the Environmental Protection Agency, phosphorous and mercury contamination since the end of the last century dwindled to nearly negligible levels. Despite these facts and the recent cessation of local sources of water contamination, the effects of pollution from this and the previous century will continue to contaminate rain and water bodies for countless years to come.

As of 2040 the waters of Lake Ontario, the Don, Rouge and Humber rivers, and the Etobicoke and Mimco creeks, are acidic but have been deemed safe for bathing, washing and irrigation. However their water must be treated before human consumption (see section 2:b:ii).

2:b:i) TESTING WATER

The safest and most effective ways to test for potentially harmful water impurities is by using a chemical test kit. These test kits contain materials and chemicals found in science labs. Check the Community section of this guide to source chemists kits necessary for checking for nitrates, iron, phospates and pH.

2:b:ii) PURIFYING WATE WITH FILTRATION AND BOILING

SLOW SAND FILTER
Begin by digging a pit 3 to 5 feet deep. Line the ditch with plastic sheeting leaving an overhang around the top edge of the pit. At the bottom of the lined pit, set up a series of perforated drain pipes connected to a small tank for a hose to rise to ground level ending at a hand pump. Place a layer of gravel and rocks over th drain pipes and then fill the pit with clean sand. (To wash sand, place a few buckets of sand in a wheelbarrow and fill with water; swirl the sand-water mixture around, then pour off the muddy water.) To use the sand filter, feed water to the sand pit until topped with water or water runs out. Wait for the water to filter down to the pipes before pumping. Boil water after filtering.

After some time, a gelatinous layer forms on the upper layer of the sand filter. Although this layer is composed mostly of friendly bacteria, it must be cleaned off and replaced with clean sand regularly.

BOILING
Each household must boil their sand-filtered water before using. Boiling kills such microorganisms as protozoa, bacteria and viruses, but cannot remove chemical or radioactive pollutants.

Bring water to a rolling boil for at least 1 minute to purify. Cool and store in clean closed containers for up to one week. If freezing, allow enough room at the tops of the containers for water to expand without bursting. Never drink directly from containers, to prevent contamination of germs or dirt into the containers.

Read the next section, Water Conservation, Storage & Heating...

11 comments:

anne said...

Boisand water filters are used all ove the world, mostly in the developing world, and when properly made and when a decently clean water source is used boiling is not always necessary. The filters remove up to 99% of harmful bacteria. Check out cawst.org, these people are fantastic, and experts on the subject. Of course boiling is always a good idea if heat sources are not in short supply! :)

TKPNZ said...

You might want to check the SODIS method, for purifying water easily.

Monica said...

Did you know that drinking boiled water improves your blood circulation? Plus, some studies have actually shown that drinking one get rids of built deposits that are responsible for creating negative thoughts and emotions in our nervous system.

~ Monica Barnes

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Calvin Brock said...

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Solayman Hossain said...

Boiling Billy applies the Venturi Principle of water pressure. There aren't any moving parts so it's maintenance free. It's our way of harnessing nature's technology. When there aren't any pumps, solenoid valves or electronic taps, there are fewer breakdowns and, importantly, less energy is consumed.

Derek Sharpie said...

best water purifier i've tried and i'm sticking to is berkey water filter. Instantly purifies water from any source including stagnant water.

Hannah Tess said...

invest on a good home water purification system.R.O water system is really the best as it can remove contaminants such as arsenic, nitrates, sodium, copper and lead, some organic chemicals, and the municipal additive fluoride.

Jessica Glenn said...

It is not difficult to see why water pollution is a real issue for the animals and plants which live in those ecosystems,yet the reality of the situation is it additionally contrarily influences individuals.These same contaminated water sources are likewise where we get our fish,where we swim and play, and even where our tap water is drawn from.While tap water is dealt with completely to lessen pollution,a few contaminants may at present stay including substantial metals,chemicals,organisms, and pharmaceuticals drugs.Everybody who uses tap or well water will be presented to some level of these contaminants consistently.

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Jason Forest said...

we really need to have a good water purification system now that millions of people are dying from different diseases they acquired from drinking unfiltered water

Josephine Bernie said...

Water is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of our community. water treatment process may vary on the water condition that you have in your area. its better to invest on a good water treatment. it will benefit you by providing safety to you and your family.